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Some have argued that the conditions that did so much damage to Hollywood in the short term, such as the loss of control over theatre distribution, actually contributed to the growth of American cinema in the long run. For one thing, it allowed the growth of independent theatre chains which allowed owners to present a wider option of films to show to the American public.

This usually meant foreign films, but it also helped independent producers and distributors, who no longer had to deal with studios to screen their films to the average audience. This helped spark the growth of independent cinema and underground cinema, which developed in New York at this time, later leading to the rise of John Cassavetes , often hailed as the "Father of American Independent Film". His film Shadows was a striking glimpse of American life that dealt with subjects such as the lives of normal African-Americans, an interracial romance, and sexual relationships, with a realism far away from Hollywood's idealized touch.

In addition to this, a young ambitious tyro like Stanley Kubrick could more or less become a Self-Made Man and become a master of film production outside the system, and moreover have his early short newsreels and low-budget independent films find an audience, with which he built a platform into the mainstream, in a way that he would never have managed in the old studio system.

The ability of actors and directors to negotiate independent contracts likewise provided them better incentives, such as a percentage of actual gross.

This resulted in greater roles played by agents such as Lew Wassermann of MCA, but it also allowed stars to break free of Typecasting and play darker roles, such as James Stewart 's films with Anthony Mann and Alfred Hitchcock when he was no longer constrained or typed by his old roles. Burt Lancaster was another star who took advantage of this freedom to produce films such as Sweet Smell of Success. The decentralization in the studio system often gave directors, screenwriters, and producers more leg room to make films their way, even if they still had to contend with The Hays Code on its last legs.

The Auteur Theory was first developed during this time by the French New Wave , and had a major impact on many of the star filmmakers whose careers exploded in the '70s.

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The New Wave pointed out that in the post-war era, there were several filmmakers who brought a fresh Genre-Busting approach to American cinema. This period saw old masters like John Ford , Howard Hawks , and Alfred Hitchcock making mature works like The Searchers , Rio Bravo , and Vertigo , films which often challenged or contrasted against their more well-known style, which were often much darker and bleaker than their films made in the s and s. Kazan, Preminger, and Billy Wilder in particular were especially bold in challenging the censorship of the time, and broke barriers in terms of restriction of sexual content.

On a somewhat related note, American animation was also facing a steep decline during this period; for more information, see The Dark Age of Animation. Community Showcase More.

Follow TV Tropes. You need to login to do this. Get Known if you don't have an account. Welcome to In fact, she argues, they held such jobs in greater numbers between and than they would for decades after.

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Although there were few women directors left at the height of the studio system you can basically count them on two fingers: Dorothy Arzner and Ida Lupino , Smyth tots up an impressive array of women film editors, costume designers, talent agents, screenwriters, producers, Hollywood union heads, and behind-the-scenes machers whose titles—executive secretary to a studio head, for instance—belied their influence. Smyth burrows enthusiastically into humble sources that, she suggests, other scholars have looked down on: studio phone directories, in-house newsletters.

Researchers on similar quests have come upon evidence in still more unlikely forms and places. Reels of film forgotten or lost sometimes turn up randomly—interred in an archive in New Zealand, or sealed into a swimming pool in a remote town in the Yukon. Louisa Wei. In addition to designing monster makeup and special effects, Patrick was a glamorous bit actress with lush, dark hair and a penchant for cocktail dresses that showed off her shoulders.

She lived out her life as a small-time society lady, attending charity events and the like, and making an occasional onscreen appearance. Being the first woman to design an iconic movie monster might not seem the most exalted of feminist achievements. The forms in which women project and objectify their fears ought to have the chance to scare the bejeezus out of us as often as those of men do. If only Mary Shelley could have been a creative consultant for the screen versions of her creature. One of those places, it turns out, was Walt Disney Studios. That might seem surprising for an enterprise associated with pliant storybook princesses.

But Disney heroines were always more varied than detractors would have it, and certainly have become more so as of late. Milicent Patrick, for one, got her start at Disney. Bianca Majolie, the daughter of Italian immigrants, moved with her family to Chicago and attended the same high school as Walt Disney. Later, as a thirty-three-year-old commercial artist, she wrote him a letter telling him about the comics she drew at home. Majolie generated concepts and drawings for a number of other movies, but most of her work never made it to the screen, Holt writes.

She was shy, and at a chronic disadvantage as the only woman in boisterous story meetings, where the standard practice was to pitch ideas by acting them out, complete with cartoon voices. She escaped her desk on missions that would fill any office-bound introvert with envy: heading deep into the majestic hush of the downtown-L. You almost imagine them. Grace Huntington was hired in the story department in , and was gutsy as all getout—as an amateur aviator, she set altitude records. Retta Scott grew up in rural Washington State and moved to Los Angeles with a scholarship to attend art school.

Alfred Schnittke. Rabih Abou-Khalil: Trouble in Jersualem. Der Kobold. Das Neue Babylon. Der Schatz. Der Rosenkavalier. Die Generallinie. Dmitri Shostakovich. Prokofiev: Alexander Nevski.

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Der letzte Mann. Alexander Nevsky. Director: Sergei M.

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The film recounts an episode set in the 13th century: in order to defend themselves against a plundering and murdering host of the Teutonic Knights, Russian farmers unite under the leadership of Count Alexander Nevsky and defeat the German aggressors in the legendary "battle on the ice". Sergei Prokofiev's film music, which is significantly more austere than the concert cantata of the same name, underlines the film's character with contrasting musical motives folkloristic-charming choir passages for the Russian farmers; sharp, dissonant brass for the knights; absurd choral verses for the priests.

In Eisenstein's work, this first cooperation with Prokofiev plays a special role since it marked the beginning of the theory of vertical montage. Lewis Milestone's classic war film emerged in , just at the end of the upheaval from silent to talking film. In order to present the movie at cinemas that hadn't yet made the transition to talkies, Universal produced a silent version that should by no means be understood as a byproduct. The silent version reveals aesthetic differences that mostly result from the technical standard of the time.

The camera, relieved of the heavy apparatuses needed for talking film, floats fluidly through cinematic space. The silent version also includes scenes left out of the talking film. Battleship Potemkin. Sergei Eisenstein's milestone in film history commemorates the mutiny on the Czar's battleship off Odessa in Eisenstein, who was 28 years old at the time, developed his innovative montage techniques in the context of this film.

The editing, which was approached with previously unknown rhythm and dynamics, turned the film into a particularly haunting work that polemically contrasts the rulers and the ruled, engaging emotions with the aim of taking the audience to the point where political insight is gained. The musical arrangement by Armin Brunner compiles symphonies No. The result is film music full of grace, power and demonic possession that posthumously brought together two notable artists who had wanted to work together as long as they lived but never actually fulfilled this desire.

Shostakovich's music is full of vivid, pictorial gestures of grief, hesitancy and remembrance, gallant attacks, fear and faith in victory.

Chapter 2: Movies and Cinema

The classic fairy-tale of Snow White is taken by director Pablo Berger into the Andalusian torero world. To escape her miserable childhood, she embarks on a journey and meets new friends: the Enanos Toreros, seven dwarfs who travel across the country and are always eager to participate in bullfights. When one of them is severely injured, Carmen steps in and becomes a famous matador. Symphony Of A Great City. Today, this brilliantly edited silent film is considered to be a classic piece of cinema history. Illustrating one day in the metropolis, it captures the vivacious emotions of the roaring twenties and pursues the racing pulse of city life.

The action, some of which was shot with hidden cameras, takes place from morning to night on a typical working day and was edited according to musical principles in the form of a 'symphony' in 5 acts with different tempi. A novel aspect of the film is the crucial role of the music, which the film composer Edmund Meisel developed in close cooperation with the director. Meisel's music conveys the tempo of unfolding city life and designs a multi-layered sound picture of the city which is realised in distinctive, rhythmical leitmotivs.